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nrci

Carotenoid Nutrition: The NRCI specialises on research into carotenoids. Carotenoids  are naturally occurring plant pigments found in nature. Carotenoids play important roles throughout the body, but three particular carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin) are found at the back of the eye (the macula) where they are collectively known as macular pigment. Macular pigment is a biomarker for brain concentrations of these nutrients.

 

 

 

 

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Macular Pigment: The NRCI is a world leader in the measurement of macular pigment (the carotenoid pigments concentrated at the back of the eye, known as the yellow spot). Currently, we use the Heidelberg Spectralis system and its image-based software program to measure macular pigment. Using this technology, we can quantify the amount of this nutritional pigment in the living person, and test the impact of nutrition and supplement intervention on macular pigment improvement.

 

 

 

 

nrci

Omega Nutrition: The NRCI specializes in research on the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. These fatty acids are produced by the body, but in specific stages of life and in various diseases the internal production of these molecules is suboptimal. At the NRCI we study the beneficial role of the consumption of these molecules in the cognitive state.

 

 

 

 

 

nrci

Visual Performance: The NRCI has a dedicated visual performance research facility, with state-of-the-art technologies in-situ to assess visual functions including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare disability, photostress recovery, colour vision, high performance vision.

 

 

 

 

 

nrci

Cognitive Performance: The NRCI has a dedicated cognitive performance research facility to assess cognitive processes including attention, reaction time and different types of memory.

 

 

 

 

 

nrci

Nutritional Interventional Studies: The NRCI specialises in conducting human nutritional interventional studies, where the outcome measures are related to human function, with a particular emphasis on visual performance and cognitive performance.

 

 

 

 

 

nrci

Analytical Chemistry: The NRCI has developed state-of-the-art methodologies and protocols for the analysis and quantification of omega 3-fatty acids and carotenoids in foods, supplements, blood and tissue. The main analytical systems used include High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), ultra-HPLC, and Gas Chromatography (GC). These analyses are used to support our basic research analytical development, interventional studies and Supplement Certified analysis.

Research Projects:

  • The Meso-zeaxanthin Ocular Supplementation Trials (MOST) were conducted to investigate the impact of three different macular carotenoid formulations on macular pigment optical density and visual performance in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration. The reports from these Trials showed that the formulations containing the three carotenoids resulted in improvements in visual function (contrast sensitivity) for patients with early age-related macular degeneration. They also showed that the longer the period of supplementation, the better the outcome for patients with early age-related macular degeneration and therefore highlighted the importance of continued supplementation for vision and retinal health. This research was sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822).

  • The Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial that investigated the impact of nutritional supplementation on visual function among healthy individuals with low retinal carotenoid levels. The gold-standard clinical trial observed significant improvements in visual function following 12-month carotenoid supplementation and highlighted how dietary fortification with these carotenoids can have a meaningful effect on visual function. CREST was funded by the European Research Council (Ref: 281096).

     

    CREST AMD was a two-year trial involving over 100 people diagnosed with the early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and has shown an improvement in the vision of those taking a dietary supplement of carotenoids. Improvements in vision were particularly marked among those receiving all three carotenoids compared to those receiving only zeaxanthin and lutein. CREST AMD was funded by the European Research Council (Ref: 281096).

  • This project, the Carotenoids and Age- Related Dementia Study (CARDS) represented the first discovery for Alzheimer’s disease relating to carotenoids. The research discovered that patients with Alzheimer’s disease are deficient in carotenoids and have poorer vision when compared to age-matched controls. Based upon these initial results, an investigation on the impact of the three carotenoids on macular pigment, visual and cognitive function in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease was conducted. This follow-on study showed that patients with Alzheimer’s disease respond positively to the supplement formulation with the 3 carotenoids. It demonstrated improvements in carotenoids in blood, retina and in visual function for these patients. Following this, it was discovered that combining the carotenoids with omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.This formulation gave a greater carotenoid improvement in blood and also provided improvements in the quality of life for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. These results prompted further study to look at the impact of supplementation with a combination of carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids on cognition and visual function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease over a longer period of time (see reMIND). This research was sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822).

  • The Egg Xanthophyll Intervention clinical Trial (EXIT) developed a carotenoid-rich egg and demonstrated that consumption of these eggs greatly improved blood carotenoid levels, but the duration of supplementation (8 weeks) was not long enough to improve macular pigment or visual function levels in this study. This research was sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822).

  • The Cognitive impAiRmEnt Study (CARES) was a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial that investigated the impact of targeted nutritional supplementation in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (Trial 1) and cognitively healthy older adults (Trial 2). Despite a small sample size, CARES Trial 1 identified trends in improved performance in episodic memory and global cognition among individuals with clinically confirmed MCI following 12-month targeted nutritional supplementation. CARES trial 2 reported improvements in working memory, attention and domains of global cognition. Importantly, the magnitude of change in nutritional status observed in both blood and tissue was directly related to the magnitude of change observed in cognitive function. This research was sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822).

  • The Carotenoid- Omega bioAvailability Study (COAST) is a research project that was established to investigate the bioavailability of key carotenoid formulations in nutritional supplements by measuring response in serum concentrations and macular pigment. COAST is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention trial which recruited 97 healthy volunteers. The main finding of this first analysis was the identification of a new formulation with a new method of delivery (known as micromicelle) that can greatly increase the efficacy of these key carotenoids in nutritional supplements. Currently, COAST is undergoing secondary analysis to investigate the impact these formulations have on visual performance, cognitive function, and metabolic diseases. This research was sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822) and Industrial Organica (Mexico) as part of the WIT PhD co-fund program.

  • This project aims to develop a product providing the capability to test and assess visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in a portable and simulated virtual reality environment. The product will focus on the hardware functionality aspects such as visual resolution and patient experience.  From a software aspect will implement functionality and features to run the visual function tests. This product will be tested in a human clinical trial. The end output being a clinically proven product capable of completing end user eye tests in a virtual reality simulated environment and providing detailed output supervisor result reports for eye professionals conducting the tests. VisionARY is funded by Enter

  • The purpose of FortiXan is to improve the nutritional content of the human diet by developing a nutritionally superior or fortified dairy product for the general population. This project hypothesises that using a dairy product as a vehicle for carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids will facilitate and enhance the delivery of these nutrients for population groups including children, people interested in sports, and vulnerable individuals such as patients with oesophageal cancer or Alzheimer’s disease where dysphagia is likely. This research is funded by Science Foundation Ireland.

  • The Memory Investigation with Nutrition for Dementia (re-MIND) study is a 24-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial investigating the impact of supplementation with carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E on the natural progression of individuals with mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this research is to build on exploratory work by the NRCI, which identified improvements in quality of life (memory, sight and mood) in patients with AD when a combination of carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids were provided. This research is sponsored by the Howard Foundation (Registered UK Charity No: 285822).

  • TLALOC is an observational study that describes macular pigment (MP) and its constituents in serum and diet, and for the first time in a Mexican sample in 215 volunteers. In addition, it studied possible relationships with environmental and nutritional determinants and compared the results with previous data on MP in an Irish sample, and reports MP in patients with metabolic diseases.  The findings of TLALOC suggest that differences in MP are not only explained by ethnicity and genetics, but environmental factors such as sunlight exposure and dietary patterns are important determinants. This research is sponsored by Industrial Organica (Mexico).

2020

Stereochemistry of Astaxanthin Biosynthesis in the Marine Harpacticoid Copepod Tigriopus Californicus. Prado-Cabrero A, Saefurahman G, Nolan JM. Marine Drugs. October 2020.

The impact of formulation on Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin Bioavailability: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Green-Gomez M, Prado-Cabrero A, Moran R, Power T, Gomez-Mascaraque LG, Stack J, Nolan JM. Antioxidants. August 2020.

Targeted Nutritional Intervention for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Cognitive impAiRmEnt Study (CARES) Trial 1. Power R, Nolan J, Prado-Cabrero A, Coen R, Roche W, Power T, Howard A, Mulcahy R. Journal of Personalised Medicine. May 2020.

2019

Vitreous Antioxidants, Degeneration, and Vitreo-Retinopathy: Exploring the Links. Ankamah E, Sebag J, Ng E, Nolan JM. Antioxidants. December 2019.

Standardizing the Assessment of Macular Pigment Using a Dual-Wavelength Autoflourescence Technique. Green-Gomez M, Bernstein PS, Curcio CA, Moran R, Roche W, Nolan JM. Translational Vision Science & Technology. December 2019.

Internal drainage of subretinal fluid during chandelier-assisted scleral buckling. Ankamah E, Siemerink MJ, Polkinghorne PJ, Nolan JM, Ng E. Retinal Cases and Brief Reports. October 2019.

Rising Atmospheric CO2 Lowers Concentrations of Plant Carotenoids Essential to Human Health: A Meta-Analysis. Loladze I, Nolan JM, Ziska LH, Knobbe AR. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. July 2019.

Circulating Micronutrient Biomarkers Are Associated With 3 Measures of Frailty: Evidence From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. O’Halloran AM, Laird EJ, Feeney J, Healy M, Moran RA, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Molloy AM, Kenny RA. JAMDA. August 2019.

The Role of Nutrition for the Aging Population: Implications for Cognition and Alzheimer’s Disease. Power R, Prado-Cabrero A, Mulcahy R, Howard A, Nolan JM. Annual Reviews of Food Science and Technology. April 2019.

2018

Macular Pigment and Visual Function in Patients with Glaucoma: The San Diego Macular Pigment Study. Daga FB, Ogata NG, Medeiros FA, Moran R, Morris J, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science. September 2018.

Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: Potential Benefits of Xanthophyll Carotenoids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Combined. Nolan JM, Mulcahy R, Power R, Moran R, Howard AN. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. June 2018.

The Relationship between Plasma Concentrations of Lutein and Zeaxanthin with Self-Reported and Actual Prevalence of AMD in an Irish population-Based Sample. Moran R, Beatty S, Stack J, O’Halloran AM, Feeney J, Akuffo KO, Peto T, Kenny RA, Nolan JM. Current Eye Research. March 2018.

Analysis of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-Zeaxanthin in the Organs of Carotenoid-Supplemented Chickens. Phelan D, Prado-Cabrero A, Nolan JM. Foods. February 2018.

Supplemental Retinal Carotenoids Enhance Memory in Healthy Individuals with Low Levels of Macular Pigment in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Power R, Coen R, Beatty S, Mulcahy R, Moran R, Stack J, Howard AN, Nolan JM. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. January 2018.

2017

Plasma Lutein and Zeaxanthin are Associated with Better Cognitive Function Across Multiple Domains in a Large Population-Based Sample of Older Adults: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging. Feeney J, O’Leary N, Moran R, O’Halloran AM, Nolan JM, Beatty S, Young IS, Kenny RA. Journal of Gerontology, Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Science. October 2017.

Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations. Phelan D, Prado-Cabrero A, Nolan JM. Nutrients. October 2017.

The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial. Akuffo KO, Beatty S, Peto T, Stack J, Stringham J, Kelly D, Leung I, Corcoran L, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. October 2017.

Response to ‘Comment on The evidence informing the surgeon’s selection of intraocular lens on the basis of light transmittance properties’. Li X, Kelly D, Nolan JM, Dennison JL, Beatty S. Eye (London). April 2017.

Phospholipid oxidation and carotenoid supplementation in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Ademowo OS, Dias HK, Milic I, Devitt A, Moran R, Mulcahy R, Howard AN, Nolan JM, Griffiths HR. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. March 2017.

Non-Dietary Correlates and Determinants of Plasma Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations in the Irish Population. Moran R, Nolan JM, Stack J, O’Halloran AM, Feeney J, Akuffo KO, Kenny RA, Beatty S. Journal of Nutrition Health and Ageing. March 2017.

Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration. Akuffo KO, Nolan JM, Peto T, Stack J, Leung I, Corcoran L, Beatty S. British Journal of Ophthalmology. February 2017.

Serum and macular response to carotenoid-enriched egg supplementation in human subjects: the Egg Xanthophyll Intervention clinical Trial. Kelly D, Nolan JM, Howard AN, Stack J, Akuffo KO, Moran R, Thurnham DI, Dennison J, Meagher KA, Beatty S. British Journal of Nutrition. January 2017.

2016

The evidence informing the surgeon’s selection of intraocular lens on the basis of light transmittance properties. Li X, Kelly D, Nolan JM, Dennison JL, Beatty S. Eye. December 2016.

Author Response: Comments on Enrichment of Macular Pigment Enhances Contrast Sensitivity in Subjects Free of Retinal Disease: CREST – Report 1. Nolan JM, Power R, Stringham J, Dennison J, Stack J, Kelly D, Moran R, Akuffo KO, Corcoran L, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. October 2016.

Quantification of zeaxanthin stereoisomers and lutein in trout flesh using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. Prado-Cabrero A, Beatty S, Stack J, Howard AN, Nolan JM. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. July 2016.

Enrichment of Macular Pigment Enhances Contrast Sensitivity in Subjects Free of Retinal Disease: Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trials – Report 1. Nolan JM, Power R, Stringham J, Dennison J, Stack J, Kelly D, Moran R, Akuffo KO, Corcoran L, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. June 2016.

The Impact of Cataract, and Its Surgical Removal, on Measures of Macular Pigment Using the Heidelberg Spectralis HRA+OCT MultiColor Device. Akuffo KO, Nolan JM, Stack J, Power R, Kirwan C, Moran R, Corcoran L, Owens N, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. May 2016.

Introduction of a Toric Intraocular Lens to a Non-Refractive Cataract Practice: Challenges and Outcomes. Kirwan C, Nolan JM, Stack J, Dooley I, Moore TC, Beatty S. International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research. May 2016.

Lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin content of eggs laid by hens supplemented with free and esterified xanthophylls. Nolan JM, Meagher KA, Howard AN, Moran R, Thurnham DI, Beatty S. Journal of Nutritional Science. January 2016.

2015

Concordance of Macular Pigment Measurement Using Customized Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry and Fundus Autoflourescence in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Akuffo KO, Beatty S, Stack J, Peto T, Leung I, Corcoran L, Power R, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. December 2015.

Lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Bernstein PS, Li B, Vachali PP, Gorusupudi A, Shyam R, Henriksen BS, Nolan JM. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. November 2015.

Assessment of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin concentrations in dietary supplements by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Prado-Cabrero A, Beatty S, Howard AN, Stack J, Bettin P, Nolan JM. European Food Research and Technology. October 2015.

Visual Function and Its Relationship with Severity of Early, and Activity of Neovascular, Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Loughman J, Sabour-Pickett S, Nolan JM, Klein B, Klein R, Beatty S. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. October 2015.

Cognitive Function and Its Relationship with Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Concentrations of its Constituent Carotenoids. Kelly D, Coen RF, Akuffo KO, Beatty S, Dennison J, Moran R, Stack J, Howard AN, Mulcahy R, Nolan JM. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. August 2015.

Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the Republic of Ireland. Akuffo KO, Nolan JM, Stack J, Moran R, Feeney J, Kenny RA, Peto T, Dooley C, O’Halloran AM, Cronin H, Beatty S. British Journal of Ophthalmology. August 2015.

Determinants of patient satisfaction and function related to vision following cataract surgery in eyes with no visually consequential ocular co-morbidity. Kirwan C, Nolan JM, Stack J, Moore TC, Beatty S. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. May 2015.

Sustained supplementation and monitored response with differing carotenoid formulations in early age-related macular degeneration. Akuffo KO, Nolan JM, Howard AN, Moran R, Stack J, Klein R, Klein BE, Meuer SM, Sabour-Pickett S, Thurnham DI, Beatty S. Eye (London). May 2015.

The impact of supplemental macular carotenoids in Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized Clinical Trial. Nolan JM, Loskutova E, Howard A, Mulcahy R, Moran R, Stack J, Bolger M, Coen RF, Dennison J, Akuffo KO, Owens N, Power R, Thurnham D, Beatty S. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. February 2015.

2014

Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device. Smolarek-Kasprzak P, Nolan JM, Beatty S, Dennison J, Akuffo KO, Kuchling R, Stack J, O’Regan G. Journal of Ophthalmology. December 2014.

Macular response to supplementation with differing xanthophyll formulations in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration. Thurnham DI, Nolan JM, Howard AN, Beatty S. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. October 2014.

Supplementation with three different macular carotenoid formulations in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. Sabour-Pickett S, Beatty S, Connolly E, Loughman J, Stack J, Howard A, Klein R, Klein BE, Meuer SM, Myers CE, Akuffo KO, Nolan JM. Retina. September 2014.

Verification of meso-zeaxanthin in fish. Nolan JM, Beatty S, Meagher KA, Howard AN, Kelly D, Thurnham DI. Journal of Food Processing and Technology. June 2014.

Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trials (CREST): Design and Methodology of the CREST Randomized Controlled Trials. Akuffo KO, Beatty S, Stack J, Dennison J, O’Regan S, Meagher KA, Peto T, Nolan JM. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. April 2014.

Regarding Macular Xanthophylls and ω-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Meagher KA, Nolan JM, Beatty S. JAMA Ophthalmology. February 2014.

Macular pigment, visual function, and macular disease among subjects with Alzheimer’s disease: An Exploratory Study. Nolan JM, Loskutova E, Howard AN, Moran R, Mulcahy R, Stack J, Bolger M, Dennison J, Akuffo KO, Owens N, Thurnham DI, Beatty S. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. January 2014.

2013

Response to Bernstein et al. Nolan JM, Meagher K, Kashani S, Beatty S. Eye (London). December 2013.

Concordance of macular pigment measurements obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, and single-wavelength reflectance. Dennison JL, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM. Experimental Eye Research. November 2013.

Low macular pigment optical density is associated with lower cognitive performance in a large, population-based sample of older adults. Feeney J, Finucane C, Savva GM, Cronin H, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Kenny RA. Neurobiology of Aging. November 2013.

What is meso-zeaxanthin and where does it come from? Nolan JM, Meagher K, Kashani S, Beatty S. Eye (London). August 2013.

Re: lutein supplementation improves visual performance in Chinese drivers: 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: the importance of supplementing with all three macular carotenoids. Nolan JM, Beatty S, Dennison J. Nutrition. July 2013.

Macular pigment and its contribution to vision. Loskutova E, Nolan JM, Howard A, Beatty S. Nutrients. May 2013.

Investigation of Genetic Variation in Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 1 (SCARB1) and Association with Serum Carotenoids. McKay GJ, Loane E, Nolan JM, Patterson CC, Meyers KJ, Mares JA, Yonova-Doing E, Hammond CJ, Beatty S, Silvestri G. Ophthalmology. April 2013.

Secondary Outcomes in a Clinical Trial of Carotenoids with Coantioxidants versus Placebo in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Beatty S, Chakravarthy U, Nolan JM, Muldrew KA, Woodside JV, Denny F, Stevenson MR. Ophthalmology. March 2013.

Visual outcome after antioxidant supplementation. Beatty S, Nolan JM, Muldrew KA, Woodside J, Stevenson MR, Chakravarthy U. Ophthalmology. March 2013.

Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab. Sabour-Pickett S, Loughman J, Nolan JM, Stack J, Pesudovs K, Meagher KA, Beatty S. Journal of Ophthalmology. February 2013.

2012

Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration. Meagher KA, Thurnham D, Beatty S, Howard AN, Connolly EE, Cummins W, Nolan JM. British Journal of Nutrition. December 2012.

The natural history of tractional cystoid macular edema. Charalampidou S, Nolan JM, Beatty S. Retina. November 2012.

The impact of macular pigment augmentation on visual performance using different carotenoid formulations. Loughman J, Nolan JM, Howard AN, Conolly E, Meagher K, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. November 2012.

Impact of dietary carotenoid deprivation on macular pigment and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin: Letter. Loughman J, Nolan JM, Beatty S. British Journal of Nutrition. October 2012.

Education is positively associated with macular pigment: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Nolan JM, Feeney J, Kenny RA, Cronin H, O’Regan C, Savva GM, Loughman J, Finucane C, Connolly E, Meagher K, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. November 2012.

Profiles of Macular Pigment Optical Density and Their Changes Following Supplementation with Lutein and Zeaxanthin: Letter. Nolan JM, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. September 2012.

The Heritability of Macular Response to Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin: a Classical Twin Study. Hammond CJ, Liew SM, Van Kuijk FJ, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Spector TD, Gilbert C. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. July 2012.

Macular carotenoid supplementation in subjects with atypical spatial profiles of macular pigment. Nolan JM, Akkali M, Loughman J, Howard A, Beatty S. Experimental Eye Research. May 2012.

A review of the evidence germane to the putative protective role of the macular carotenoids for age-related macular degeneration. Sabour-Pickett S, Nolan JM, Loughman J, Beatty S. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. February 2012.

2011

Supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: response, stability and safety. Connolly EE, Beatty S, Loughman J, Howard AN, Louw MS, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. November 2011.

An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000. Loughman J, Scanlon G, Nolan JM, O’Dwyer V, Beatty S. Acta Ophthalmologica. November 2011.

Macular Pigment: Its Associations with Color Discrimination and Matching. Davison P, Akkali M, Loughman J, Scanlon G, Nolan JM, Beatty S. Optometry and Vision Science. July 2011.

The association between macular pigment optical density and CFH, ARMS2, C2/BF, and C3 genotype. Loane E, Nolan JM, McKay GJ, Beatty S. Experimental Eye Research. July 2011.

Psychophysical impact and optical and morphological characteristics of symptomatic non-advanced cataract. Charalampidou S, Nolan JM, Loughman J, Stack J, Higgins G, Cassidy L, Beatty S. Eye (London). June 2011.

26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference, September 2011, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition. Biesalski HK, Aggett P, Anton R, Bernstein PS, Blumberg J, Heaney RP, Henry J, Nolan JM, Richardson DP, van Ommen B, Witkamp RF, Rijkers GT, Zöllner I. Nutrition. June 2011.

Prognostic Indicators and Outcome Measures for Surgical Removal of Symptomatic Nonadvanced Cataract. Charalampidou S, Loughman J, Nolan JM, Stack J, Cassidy L, Pesudovs K, Beatty S. Archives of Ophthalmology. May 2011.

The impact of macular pigment augmentation on visual performance in normal subjects: COMPASS. Nolan JM, Loughman J, Akkali MC, Stack J, Scanlon G, Davison P, Beatty S. Vision Research. March 2011.

Estimation of effective lens position using a method independent of preoperative keratometry readings. Dooley I, Charalampidou S, Nolan JM, Loughman J, Molloy L, Beatty S. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. March 2011.

Visual perceptions induced by intravitreous injections of therapeutic agents. Charalampidodu S, Nolan JM, Ormonde GO, Beatty S. Eye (London). January 2011.

2010

Changes in macular pigment optical density, and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, in response to weight loss. Kirby M, Beatty S, Stack J, Harrison M, Greene I, McBrinn S, Carroll P, Nolan JM. British Journal of Nutrition. December 2010.

Update on modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration. Nolan JM, O’Regan SJ, Beatty S, O’Regan GE. Optometry in Practice. October 2010.

Effect on refractive outcomes after cataract surgery of intraocular lens constant personalization using the Haigis formula. Charalampidou S, Cassidy L, Ng E, Loughman J, Nolan JM, Stack J, Beatty S. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. July 2010.

The respective relationships between lipoprotein profile, macular pigment optical density, and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin. Loane E, Nolan JM, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. June 2010.

Macular Pigment Optical Density in an Ageing Irish Population: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Nolan JM, Kenny R, O’Regan C, Cronin H, Loughman J, Connolly EE, Kearney P, Loane E, Beatty S. Ophthalmic Research. June 2010.

A “central dip” in macular pigment is related to age and cigarette smoking. Kirby ML, Beatty S, Loane E, Akkali MC, Connolly EE, Stack J, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. June 2010.

Augmentation of macular pigment following supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: an exploratory study. Connolly EE, Beatty S, Thurnham DI, Loughman J, Howard AN, Stack J, Nolan JM. Current Eye Research. April 2010.

The Relationship between Macular Pigment and Visual Performance. Loughman J, Akkali MC, Beatty S, Scanlon G, Davison PA, O’Dwyer V, Cantwell T, Major P, Stack J, Nolan JM. Vision Research. April 2010.

Macular Pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience. Loughman J, Davison PA, Nolan JM, Akkali MC, Scanlon G, Beatty S. Journal of Optometry. April 2010.

Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with macular pigment optical density. Loane E, Mckay GJ, Nolan JM, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. January 2010.

2009

Risk factors for Age-Related Maculopathy. Connell PP, Keane PA, O’Neill EC, Altaie RW, Loane E, Neelam K, Nolan JM, Beatty S. Journal of Ophthalmology. September 2009.

Augmentation of macular pigment following implantation of blue-filtering intraocular lenses at the time of cataract surgery. Nolan JM, O’Reilly P, Loughman J, Stack J, Loane E, Connolly E, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. July 2009.

Psychophysical function in age-related Maculopathy. Neelam K, Nolan JM, Chakravarthy U, Beatty S. Survey of Ophthalmology. March 2009.

2008

Foveal Anatomic Associations with the Secondary Peak and the Slope of Macular Pigment Spatial Profile. Kirby M, Galea M, Loane E, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. October 2008.

The utility of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Stringham JM, Hammond BR, Nolan JM, Wooten BR, Mammen A, Smollon W, Snodderly DM. Experimental Eye Research. August 2008.

The Rationale and Evidence Base for a Protective Role of Macular Pigment in Age-Related Maculopathy. Loane E, Kelliher C, Beatty S, Nolan JM. British Journal of Ophthalmology. July 2008.

Spatial Profile of Macular Pigment and its Relationship to Foveal Architecture. Nolan JM, Stringham J, Beatty S, Snodderly DM. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. May 2008.

Diet and risk factors for age-related maculopathy. O’Connell ED, Nolan JM, Stack J, Greenberg D, Kyle J, Maddock L, Beatty S. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. March 2008.

Transport and Retinal Capture of Lutein and Zeaxanthin with Reference to Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Loane E, Nolan JM, O’Donovan O, Bhosale P, Bernstein PS, Beatty S. Survey of Ophthalmology. January 2008.

2007

Measurement of macular pigment using two different heterochromatic flicker photometers. Loane E, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM. Current Eye Research. June 2007.

The relationships between macular pigment optical density and its constituent carotenoids in diet and serum. Nolan JM, Stack J, O’Connell E, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. February 2007.

2006

Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of its constituent carotenoids following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: The LUNA Study. Trieschmann M, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Hense HW, Heimes B, Austermann U, Fobker M, Pauleikhoff D. Experimental Eye Research. December 2006.

Macular carotenoids and age related maculopathy. O’Connell E, Neelam K, Nolan JM, Au Eong KG, Beatty S. ANNALS Academy of Medicine Singapore. November 2006.

Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment. Nolan JM, Stack J, O’Donovan O, Loane E, Beatty S. Experimental Eye Research. November 2006.

Macular pigment and ocular biometry. Neelam K, Nolan JM, Loane E, Stack J, O’Donovan O, Au Eong KG, Beatty S. Vision Research. February 2006.

Monthly consistency of macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin. Nolan JM, Stack J, Mellerio J, Godhinio M, O’Donovan O, Neelam K, Beatty S. Current Eye Research. February 2006.

2005

A novel index for predicting intraocular pressure reduction following phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Issa S, Pacheco J, Mahmood U, Nolan JM, Beatty S. British Journal of Ophthalmology. May 2005.

Measurement of macular pigment: Raman spectroscopy versus heterochromatic flicker photometry. Neelam K, O’Gorman N, Nolan JM, O’Donovan O, Wong HB, Au Eong KG, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. March 2005.

2004

Macular pigment and percentage of body fat. Nolan JM, O’Donovan O, Kavanagh H, Stack. J, Harrison M, Muldoon A, Mellerio J, Beatty S. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. November 2004.

Macular pigment optical density and its relationship with serum and dietary levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. Beatty S, Nolan JM, Kavanagh H, O’Donovan O. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. October 2004.

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TBC